In the event English was a beneficial Germanic language, and more than of their earliest language comes away from Dated English, there is also a significant vocabulary one to derives from Romance (Latin and you may French). Almost every other affixes, like “-ation”, be a little more limited.
Considering Hans Marchand, from the Classes and you can Type of Present-Day English Word-formation (College or university out of Alabama Push, 1969), new suffix -ize will come in the first place from the Greek -izo. Many conditions end using this suffix passed off Ecclesiastical Greek towards the Latin, in which, from the fourth 100 years, they’d getting centered once the verbs towards finish -izare, for example barbarizare, catechizare, christianizare. From inside the Dated French we discover of a lot including verbs, that belong mostly into ecclesistical areas: baptiser (11th c.), canoniser (13th c.), exorciser (14th c.).
The first -ize terms found in English is fund that have each other a great French and Latin trend such as for example baptize (1297), catechize, and you will organize (one another fifteenth c.) By the end of the sixteenth millennium, yet not, we see many new formations for the English, like bastardize, equalize, popularize, and you may womanize. The fresh new authoritative and you can semantic models was in fact just like those out of this new borrowed French and you will Latin forms, however, using the brand new restored study of Greek, new educated has been around since significantly more accustomed the language and you can made use of the brand new patterns away from Old Greek word-formation freely.
Between 1580 and you may 1700, the latest specialities out of books, medicine, sheer science and you may theology lead significant amounts of this new terms and conditions on code. A few of the terminology nevertheless being used now include criticize, fertilize, humanize, naturalize, satirize, sterilize, and signify. The growth out-of science shared big numbers of -ize structures from the 19th century and towards 20th.
The newest -ize terminology gathered from the people during the within this classification nine decades in the past demonstrate that -ize is almost completely limited by Relationship language, the actual only real exclusions we discover becoming womanize and you can winterize. chodit s nÄ›kÃ½m dating for seniors Even when most advanced English speakers are not knowingly alert to which words within vocabulary come from and that source, he’s got recognized which differences during the coining the fresh new conditions.
Constituent Build of Terminology
The newest constituent morphemes from a word might be arranged with the an effective branching otherwise hierarchical framework, either entitled a forest framework. Look at the keyword useless . It contains around three morphemes:
- prefix “un-“
- verb stalk “use”
- suffix “-able”
What is the design? Will it be very first “use” + “-able” making “usable”, then and “un-” and then make “unusable”? or perhaps is they basic “un-” + “use” to make “unuse”, up coming together with “-able” and come up with “unusable”? Just like the “unuse” will not can be found in the English, when you find yourself “usable” do, i prefer the earliest construction, and this represents brand new tree revealed below.
That it investigation is backed by the entire choices of those affixes. There clearly was a beneficial prefix “un-” that connects so you’re able to adjectives and make adjectives with a terrible meaning (“unhurt”, “untrue”, “unhandy”, etcetera.). As there are good suffix “-able” one to attaches so you can verbs and forms adjectives (“believable”, “fixable”, “readable”). This gives all of us the analysis pictured above. It is impossible to combine an excellent prefix “un-” individually toward verb “use”, therefore, the most other realistically-you can easily construction would not performs.
- prefix “un-“
- verb stem “lock”
- suffix “-able”
This time, though, a little believe suggests you there are a few various other meanings for this word: one to corresponding to the fresh leftover-hand contour, meaning “perhaps not lockable,” and a second one to comparable to ideal-hands profile, definition “capable of being unlocked.”